Article Archive

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Article Archive

Women, too, Like Video Games Males designed most video games for males. Console manufacturers and game makers put a lot of thought into how to hang on to customers as they grow older. Teenage boys remain the most important youjizz market for most games, especially the first–person shooters, known also as “twitch” games. But teenagers are a shifting market. Yesterday’s child is today’s teenager and tomorrow’s adult. Boys who discover that girls are not so annoying after all redtube become less concerned about laser blasting.

An important reinforcement to the play/performance comes from friends and strangers who watch the player. At the arcades what the observer usually saw were teenage boys playing the games and teenage girls cheering them on and admiring their skills instead of playing themselves. Girls may have played video games all along, but not in arcades, which seemed to pornhub be dominated by boys making noise. Most video games were boy–oriented until video game makers discovered that girls were interested in playing video games too. They began making games like the Nancy Drew mysteries for this half of the population that they had neglected. Studies showed that boys liked aggressive games more than girls did, so the game makers took that difference into consideration. A study of heart rates while playing video tube8 games showed that girls’ heart rates increased more than boys’ rates. That was true for both playing and just watching.15

Nintendo introduced Game Girl to match its successful Game Boy players, but it did not catch on. Pac–Man, on the other hand, has been described as cute, with an appeal to women. Recognizing that a market for women and girls was being ignored, its manufacturer, Namco, introduced Ms. Pac–Man, who wore lipstick and a red bow on her yellow head. Namco then xvideos discovered that both boys and girls liked it even better than Pac–Man. Patricia Greenfield, author of many books about how children learn, was pleasantly surprised when she tried Pac–Man.

Pac–Man proved to be a “cross–over” game. People who had no interest whatever in shoot–em–ups or spaceships or monsters “crossed over” into video games to play it. They could not seem to get enough of the dot–eating little creature. (Pac–Man’s name comes from the Japanese term “paku paku,” meaning “gobble, gobble.” Game designer Toru Iwatani said its shape xnxx came to him after he ate one slice from a pizza, then stared at what remained.) A 2007 study by the Entertainment Software Association reported that thirty percent of all video game players were adult women compared to twenty–three percent of players who were boys under 18.

As expected, women tend to avoid violent games. They prefer to solve puzzles, test their dexterity (Nintendo’s Wii system is popular), help their comrades put dragons in their place, and heal their fallen friends. The online Second Life is a big favorite. Women and younger girls particularly liked non–lethal games needing sharp eye–hand coordination, sometimes called “muscle memory.” You needed quick reflexes to play Pac–Man, Donkey Kong, Frogger, and Prince of Persia. Women liked these games. Researchers also noted that women preferred to take their leisure time in short free porn segments, rather than to sit for hours at a game. Another favorite of women, the Sims, are games about ordinary people living ordinary lives. The player controls the characters and must navigate them through human situations. SimCity has been used as a training tool in college management classes. A survey of Japanese adult women who like the games expressed several wishes for new simulations. This is a long way from shooter games. The Sim series, the Civilization series, and the Tycoon series (e.g., Zoo Tycoon) crossed gender lines. These “god games” allowed youporn the player to play a god in a variety of situations, such as a war or managing a city.

Testosterone continued to get the game designers’ attention. In 1996, from Britain came Lara Croft, Tomb Raider. Despite being a female hero, her busty, leggy appearance was designed to appeal to young males. The original script called for the main character to be a man, but the designers feared that the game looked like an Indiana Jones ripoff. Instead, Lara was born. By Tomb Raider III, the player who reached a higher level sent Lara into a new virtual reality in some exotic corner of the world. What seemed just a game provided a geography lesson with a male fantasy.

A study of how players referred to games reported that most people referred to a game as “it,” as in “It hates me.” Next most common was “he,” as in, “He’s trying to get me.” Also common was “you” (“You dumb machine!”) and “they” (“They think they’re so smart; I’ll show them”). No one referred to a game as “she.” One player called the game “Fred.”

The first known use of pigeons as postal messengers was in ancient Egypt. In 2900 B.C.E. in Egypt, incoming ships released pigeons as an announcement of important visitors. Around the time of Moses, the Egyptian army used carrier pigeons to deliver messages. In 2350 B.C.E. King Sargon of Akkadia—the present Iraq—ordered each messenger to carry a homing pigeon. If the messenger was about to be captured, he released the pigeon, which flew back to the palace. Its arrival meant another messenger should be sent. Pigeons also bore messages in ancient China, Persia, India, and Greece, where the names of Olympic victors were carried back to their cities.

During the Dark Ages the Arabs established regular airmail pigeon courier services. According to one tale, a caliph in North Africa satisfied his taste for Lebanese cherries by having pigeons fly them in. Each carried one cherry inside a silk bag. It was the first parcel post. Reportedly, a prize pair of carrier pigeons in the Arab empire could fetch one thousand gold pieces.

During the Crusades Richard the Lion Heart’s men captured a pigeon that carried a message reporting that a Moslem army would arrive in three days to break the Christian siege of Ptolemais. A forged message was substituted, saying that no help would be coming. The besieged town surrendered. The Moslem relief army arrived to find the Christians solidly entrenched.

Pigeon post was the world’s fastest communication system for all the centuries of the Dark and Middle Ages, and remained so until Samuel Morse’s invention of the telegraph in 1844 and Guglielmo Marconi’s invention of radio in 1895. Stockbrokers and bankers relied on pigeons through much of the nineteenth century. London banker Nathan Rothschild made a killing when a pigeon brought early news of Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo. In 1840 the European news agency Havas ran a London-to-Paris pigeon news service with the promised flying time of six hours. In the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-71, a gap existed in telegraph lines between France and Germany. Julius Reuter bridged it with pigeons and made the fortune he used as the basis of what is now Reuters, one of the world’s great news agencies.

During World War I, The American army kept several thousand homing pigeons. The fledgling British Air Force kept more than 20,000 for an unusual mission—intelligence gathering. Each pigeon, with a message holder attached, was placed inside a basket that was attached to both a parachute and a rigged balloon. When the wind was right, the balloons would be released. The rigging freed the basket over enemy territory, and the parachute gave the pigeon inside the basket a gentle landing. A message asked anyone who found the basket to supply intelligence information, put it in the message holder, and, for a promised future reward, free the pigeon to fly home. The Germans caught some of the birds and responded by shooting anyone they caught who sent a pigeon aloft with information.

Even in modern times, pigeons have been postal couriers. In 1981, Lockheed engineers in California needed to send negatives on a regular basis to a test station. The birds covered the distance in half the time and less than one percent of the cost of a car. Other means of communication have replaced the cooing messengers, but here and there they can still be found doing the useful work that made them the email of the Middle Ages. And they work for… pigeon feed.

What Month Is This?

What Month Is This?

What Month Is This?

For convenience, the month was usually subdivided into smaller time periods. The Greeks divided the month into three periods of ten days, but a division of seven days was older and more common in the Near East. We find the seven-day xvideos week already in Genesis. The names that we assign to the days have their origin in the division of the day into 24 hours, which originated in Egypt. In the Hellenistic period (300 B.C.E. – 100 B.C.E.) it became common to assign a ruling planet (including the Sun and Moon) to each hour of the day. The common order of the wandering heavenly bodies was redtube Saturn-Jupiter-Mars-Sun-Venus-Mercury-Moon. The first hour of the first day was assigned to the Sun, the second to Venus, the third to Mercury, etc., repeating the cycle in the order given above. The 24th hour was thus assigned to Mercury and the first hour of the second day to the Moon.

Naming the days after the planets that rule their first hours, we thus arrive at the sequence Sun’s day-Moon’s day-Mars’s day-Mercury’s pornhub day-Jupiter’s day-Venus’s day-Saturn’s day. The modern English variations on these names are due to substituting Nordic or Saxon gods for some of the Roman names: Tiw for Mars, Wotan for Mercury, Thor for Jupiter, Frigg for Venus.

– Albert Van Helden, galileo@rice.edu 1996-2007 Regents of the University of Minnesota. All rights reserved. The University of Minnesota is an poringa equal opportunity educator and employer. Last modified May 18, 2012 Aztec Calendar Stone
Calendars date to ancient times because of the need to know when to plant and when to observe religious holidays. The seasonal cycle of the sun is most important, but the lunar cycle, from full moon to full moon, is easiest to follow. Calendars combine solar and youporn lunar elements. Ancient Egyptians had a year of 12 months of 30 days each, with 5 days added at the end. Some Near Eastern societies preferred months of 29 or 30 days, adding a leap month every third year. Traditional Jewish and Moslem calendars are a variation on this pattern.

Ancient Chinese and Hindu calendars are also based on lunar years. The Aztecs had two calendars, one of 365 days for use by the common people, divided into 18 months of 20 days each, plus five extra days that were considered unlucky. The other calendar beeg was of 260 days, based on placating the angry, competing gods. The ancient Romans numbered each month of their 10-month year, starting in March. So September is the seventh month, December is the tenth. January and February were later added to the end of the year. Still later, Quintillis, the fifth month, was renamed to honor Julius Caesar. Sextillus was renamed to honor Augustus.

Julius Caesar reformed the calendar, and his Julian calendar was used in Europe for centuries. In 1582, Pope Gregory XIII altered xxx the means of calculation. October 15 followed October 4. The Gregorian calendar made adjustments so that the error from true value is 3 days in 10,000 years. Common people opposed the change, convinced it was a scheme by landlords to extract more rent. Catholic countries were quicker to adopt the change than Protestant countries. England did not change until 1752, when it declared that the day after September 2 would be September 14. Russia waited until 1918, but the Soviet Union and Iran chose more accurate calendars. The Iranian year begins on videos porno the vernal equinox, the first day of spring. The ancient Mayans had the most accurate system, a year of 365.242036 days. Scientists calculate that the Earth revolves around the sun once every 365.2422 days. In The Pirates of Penzance, Gilbert and Sullivan had fun with the leap year day of February 29 in this song to the hero, Frederic:

For some ridiculous reason, to which, however, I’ve no desire to
be disloyal, Some person in authority, I don’t know who, very likely the
Astronomer Royal, Has decided that, although for such a beastly month as February, twenty-eight days as a rule are plenty, One year in every four his days shall be reckoned as nine and- twenty. Through some singular coincidence– I shouldn’t be surprised if it were owing to the agency of an ill-natured fairy– You are the victim of this clumsy arrangement, having been born in leap-year, on the twenty-ninth of February; And so, by a simple arithmetical process, you’ll easily discover, That though you’ve lived twenty-one years, yet, if we go by birthdays, you’re only five and a little bit over! January, the month that looks back to the old year and ahead to the new year, is named for the two-faced god of beginnings and endings, Janus.

February takes its name from Februa, the Roman festival of purification. March honors Mars, the Roman god of war. April, a month of inconstant weather, may derive its name from Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love, and we know how constant that is. ; – ) May may have been named for the Roman goddess of spring, Maia. June may have been named for Juno, patron goddess of marriage. (“After love comes marriage…” sometimes.) ; – ) July was named for Julius Caesar. August was named for the first Roman emperor, Augustus. Names of the rest of the months are based on Latin numbers: septem (seven), octo (eight), novem (nine), decem (ten) although they no longer have the same position in the calendar.

The ancient Romans counted from the founding of Rome, 753 B.C.E (Before the Christian Era). That year was called 1 A.U.C. (Anno Urbis Conditae, Latin for the year the city was founded).

The ancient Greeks started counting from the start of the reign of King Seleucus, 312 B.C.E. According to the old Jewish calendar, the world began in 3760 B.C.E. It is a lunar calendar of 354 days, but a leap year month is added 7 times every 19 years to match the solar year. Muslims date their calendar from the year Mohammed went from Mecca to Medina, 622 C.E., but they use a lunar year of 354 days, with alternating 29- and 30-day months. Anglican Bishop calculated that the world was created in 4004 B.C.E. Most Christians believe that Jesus Christ was born in the year 1, and the world’s calendars are based on this date. Charlemagne, the first Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that years would be counted from this date rather than the founding of heathen Rome. Until the end of the Inquisition, the Christian Church excommunicated anyone who talked about the number “0”, because it represented the Void. It was a Satanic number, if if even existed, and there was some strong controversy over whether “nothing” could exist. The Christian calendar goes from -1 B.C. to 1 A.D. There is no year between the two. However, in 535, a Christian scholar, Dionysius Exiguus, calculated that Jesus was born 538 years earlier, or 3 B.C.E. A later reading of the Bible puts the date of the birth of Jesus somewhere between 20 B.C.E and 4 B.C.E.

Religion and Printing

Religion and Printing

Religion and Printing

From their beginnings in the 15th century, printing presses were tools for promulgating faith and religious points of view. In the nearly seventy years between Gutenberg’s printing of the Bible and the printing of Martin Luther’s translation of the New Testament, there were about twenty translations of the Bible in German. Instead of depending upon the explanations of priests, common people read for themselves what the Gospels said about the poor and oppressed.

The religious reformers were indifferent to secular learning, one reason that the humanists felt alienated from the Reformation. The two great movements may have been critical of the practices of the Roman Catholic Church, but they were also mistrustful of each other. Reformers saw humanism as a pagan reversion to classical culture. The humanists saw the Reformation as a backsliding to the Dark Ages. Luther exalted faith, was derogatory of scholarship, and had no use for reason as the guide for men’s conduct. The humanists had no taste for theology. Heaven and Hell were myths to the humanists, perhaps less real than the myths of Greece and Rome.
The reformers left the established Church. The humanists, although they initially praised Luther’s attacks on corruption, pulled away from Protestant theology. The two movements occurred during the same historical period, and both used printing extensively to disseminate their literature, but their proponents had little in common beyond a mutual dislike.

Before the invention of printing, when few but Church scholars were literate or had access to books, the ecclesiastical authorities thought little about heresy in books, being more concerned about preachers who spoke to the masses in the common language. Medieval bishops actually supported civil illiteracy.

In the decades after Gutenberg the Church turned to printing. It set up its own printshops, mixing religious with political purposes. With the publication of a Bible in the German vernacular, that relaxed attitude changed because Rome saw it as a challenge to its power as the sole interpreter of God’s Word.

Church and state were cautious about new religious books in any language but Latin. They had no problem with romances, folk tales, and children’s books in the vernacular, but worried about anything that challenged the control of authorities. The archbishop of Mainz, Gutenberg’s city, required permission to print any book. One of the principal concerns of the Church about printing had less to do with common people, most of whom were illiterate anyhow, than with priests and monks themselves.

TAKEN FROM:
ALPAHBET TO INTERNET: Mediated Communication in Our Lives

by Irving Fang

Published 2008 by Rada Press